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Archives as Cultural Heritage

Time: Fr. 2 June 2017
Venue: Institut für Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens
Hollandstraße 11-13, 1020 Vienna
Organisation: Prof. Abe Yasurō and Dr. Yoshida Sayuri (Nagoya)
Cooperation: Bernhard Scheid (IKGA)

See also: Workshop topic and participants

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Abstracts 要旨

Archives as Cultural Heritage

The Archival Enterprise of Shinto Texts within Temple Records
ABE Yasurō 阿部泰郎, Nagoya University, Research Center for Cultural Heritage and Texts (CHT)
(lecture at 9:30 in Japanese)

In this talk I would like to explore Shinto which formed a distinctive religious thought and a ritual practice, and ask what kind of religious texts the Shinto tradition produced? In what sort of religious space was Shinto transmitted? The paper will provide answers to these question through demonstrating the fruits of archival research that Nagoya University’s Research Center for Cultural Heritage and Texts (CHT) carried out in Shinpukuji’s Osu bunko, a repository of the medieval period’s most precious and rich texts. The paper will demonstrate that the archive was not an unusual example, it was a universal phenomenon which was shared by the medieval religious world.

1) The Formation of Shinto Texts in Buddhist Temples: the Development from the Ancient to the Medieval Period

Shinto was all along formed from within and without in relation to the influence of Buddhism as a universal religion. I will explore this assertion from the perspective of Shinto texts such as Nihon shoki, Engishiki and also the Kogoshūi which were self-consciously aware of “Shinto”. Also, in the ancient period the centers for religious text were Buddhist temples, and also the jingūji, shrine-temples within shrines, which carried out the recitations of sutra for the benefit of kami. The central scripture for such practices was the Great Wisdom Sutra and it was often worshipped as the body of the kami (shintai).

From the ancient period to the medieval era, I take the Kasuga shrine as a case study for explicating the role of Shinto. Kasuga shrine was a complex of religious texts where scholarly learning, lectures and Dharma assemblies were often held. In the late 11th century (the “cloistered sovereigns era” or inseiki), the retired sovereign Shirakawa-in had installed a repository for the Issai-kyō Buddhist canon. It was used for the worship of kami. According to a 15th century Kōfukuji record, the exo-esoteric scripture (kenmitsu shōgyō) which designated the entirety of the Buddhist canon, was placed in the repository. In addition, the archive preserved Buddhist rituals that were carried out in the front of the shrine (shatō) and their documents. The Wakamiya shrine which was constructed in the 12th century, held recitations of the Great Wisdom sutra in the 13th century.

A more diverse center of religious texts were the miyadera (shrine-temple complex) of the kami Hachiman and Tenman Tenjin. For example, at the temple of Iwashimizu Hachimangūji from the ancient to the medieval periods, in addition to Shirakawa’in’s dedication of the Issai-kyō canon, sutras and the exo-esoteric scripture, there were also divination records, engi tales (records of temple/shrine origins), Buddhist rituals and other religious texts that revolved around the Hachiman deity. Combining the temples in the vicinity of the shrine, resulted in a great combinatory religion (or religious texts). We can also see a similar trend in the Tendai sect’s religious headquarters, Enryakuji temple, which subsumed its tutelary god, Sannō gongen of Hie Sannō shrine, under the Tendai doctrinal system of Sannō Shinto texts which were produced by the record-keepers (kike). They produced a taxonomy of exoteric teachings (ken), esoteric teachings (mitsu), precepts (kai), and the textualization of Sannō Shinto texts (ki). Among their massive productions were the Sanke yōryakuki falsely attributed to the founder Saichō, and the encyclopedic Keiran jūyōjū during the 13th and 14th centuries. Many parts of these texts were preserved at the foot of Mt. Hiei, in archives such as the Sanzen’in Enyūzō and Tenkaizō.

From the end of the ancient period to the medieval era, there were also Shingon monks who created Shinto texts. Among these texts are the commentary on the Nakatomi Harae ritual, Nakatomi harae kunge, and the Yamato Katsuragi hōzanki, a text which reconstructs the world of medieval mythology and is attributed to Gyōki. There was also the Tenshō daijin giki, a text that reinterprets the Inner and Outer Shrine of Ise according to Mikkyō symbolism and reconstructs new rituals based on this worldview.

The movement of such production of Shinto texts was part of a trend of a religious world that centered on the reconstruction of the Great Buddha (Vairocana) at Tōdaiji (1185~) that was conceptualized and seen as coextensive with Amaterasu ōmikami of Ise Jingū. This was further developed in the Kamakura period (13th century) into the so-called Ryōbu Shinto of the Shingon Esoteric school that occupied a part of an “école” (Dharma lineage) consisting of jisō (the practice of esoteric rituals) and kyōsō (interpretation of doctrinal texts). In the medieval period, a system of religious texts produced by exo-esoteric temples of Tendai and Shingon was completed. (For reference, see my own Chūsei Nihon no shūkyō tekusuto taikei kenkyū, Nagoya: Nagoya Daigaku Shuppankai, 2013).

2) The Various Characteristics of the Transmission of Shinto Texts to Medieval Temples

Throughout the medieval period, the great temples that were the centers of religious texts, were Kōfukuji and Tōdaiji of Nara, Tendai’s Enryakuji and Onjōji, Shingon’s Tōji, Ninnaji, and Daigoji, and all of them preserve to this day a large amount of sacred texts. In fact, these temples do not possess many Shinto texts that can be traced back to the early medieval period. We can only find copies from the latter medieval period (the Muromachi period, starting from the 15th century).

Rather, we can find a systemization of Shinto texts in the Kantō region, at Kanazwa Shōmyōji or in Owari’s Ōsu Shinpukuji (Nagoya), which were bases for temples at the Eastern provinces. These surely formed a fundamental part of the system of sacred texts in temples.

In the beginning of the medieval period, a new political power rose in the form of Kamakura. Kamakura’s center for religious texts was the shrine Tsurugaoka Hachimangū, but also Zen and Ritsu (vinaya) great temples, among them Kanazawa Shōmyōji which was developed as an exo-esoteric temple that promoted the joint learning of all Buddhist schools. Hōjō Sanetoki constructed as annex the archive Kanazawa bunko, which housed the Song dynasty Buddhist Canon, Nihon shoki, Kogoshūi, and Reikiki. The second abbot Ken’a (1261―1338) conducted the transcribing and collecting of a large amount of these texts and others. He had gathered in the 13th century Zen texts that were new Buddhist works. Among them, ritual texts about Buddhist chanting (shōmyō) and preaching (shōdō), but also many Shinto texts including the explanations of origins (engi setsu) for various temples and shrines that were concerned with kami. Reikiki was one of them, a very important text of the Ryōbu Shinto tradition, which was copied and transmitted to the archive. The basis for its production was the Shinto kirigami (oral instructions written on single-sheets of paper, transmitted mostly as one complete set to Jingū bunko), secret texts that from the 13th to the 14th centuries were created by Mikkyō monks of the Ise Jingū region when they travelled back and forth to the Eastern provinces. As such, Shōmyōji became an important focal point for the collection of Shinto theories and texts.

3) The Shinto Texts Archive in Shinpukuji

Ōsu Shinpukuji at Owari began as a seminary (dangisho) from the Kamakura to the Nanbokuchō era (14th century). The first abbot Nōshin (1291―1354) had led this institution as a Shingon Mikkyō seminary or a scholarly temple. Nōshin had transmitted the teachings of the esoteric Dharma lineage Ono Sanbō’in, and copied a great amount of scripture. The beginning of the enterprise included Yūe’s compilation of the Shōgyō mokuroku Shinpukuji, but it did not include many Shinto texts. Yūe received from Gikai the Reikiki and copied it on his own in addition to a plurality of other Shinto texts. He had also copied the catalogue Yaketsu mokuroku, and it is possible to reconstruct the full original source through the great portion that is preserved today in Ōsu bunko. Among the groups of secret esoteric texts, many include Ryōbu Shinto documents. From their colophons and contents, it seems that they belong to the compiled texts known as yaketsu, which were gathered by the 12th century Dharma Prince Shūkaku of Ninnaji Ōmuro, and include a catechism between him and his disciple Shōken of Daigoji’s Sanbō’in lineage. These were secret Mikkyō texts transmitted by Shōken, and among them there are Ise and Hachiman-related ritual texts. We can now finally illuminate the context and trace the formation of early Shinto texts as well as confirm the date of their production. We can also reconsider early Ryōbu Shinto texts and contextualize their place within the archival collection of Mikkyō texts, the yaketsu multivolume set (yaketsu gusho).

4) Inquiry into Humanities Archives and Religious Texts as part of the Research of Shinto Texts

Nagoya University’s Research Center for Cultural Heritage and Texts (CHT) at the Humanities, continues the humanistic and cutting-edge research of religious texts in the archival repository of Shinpukuji Ōsu bunko. The National Institute of Japanese Literature (1985–2005) photocopied a portion of the documents in microfilm form. Earlier in time, in 1930, the chair of History at the department of Literature at Tokyo Imperial University, Professor Kuroita Katsumi, had catalogued all items in possession of the archive and arranged them. If we go even earlier back in time, in early 19th century the Owari Magistrate of Temples and Shrines (Owari-han jisha bugyō) had conducted some examinations and restorations and organized the material. At each period, in order to transmit religious and cultural heritage, the efforts to preserve and produce catalogues were repeated. Nagoya University’s CHT continues the same enterprise (Dr. Miyoshi will expand on this matter) and aims to create a digitized archive through relying on newly developed digital technology. More importantly, we continue to decipher and restore texts based directly on original manuscripts, and the center preserves and restores the texts through using traditional methods. By doing so, we can revive rich information that is detailed in the texts. It is our important mission to connect the academic world with society, to retrieve the information and disseminate it to a larger audience. As part of this comprehensive investigation aimed at restoration of texts, the center continues its scholarly philological research through producing photocopies, typed-transcriptions, and scholarly interpretations of the material (Please refer to our Zenpon sōkan series for the material). I will expand on Nōshin’s efforts to compile and copy the manifold texts of Shinpukuji.


Shinpukuji is a local temple repository that possesses sacred scripture and religious texts, including Shinto texts. It is quite striking that when we examine the Shinto material from a philological methodology, we can decipher and analyze the contemporaneous central political power and the philosophical and historical thought of religious texts. In order to investigate the medieval religious system of texts as found in sutra archives, and its formation and transmission, it is required to carry out the twofold process of synchronic interpretation and diachronic analysis, which is the manner in which we pursue the scholarly examination of texts. In this regard, our archival research is very fundamental, yet at the same time, it is a cutting-edge humanistic avant-garde, that perhaps rivals the fertile field of archival research carried out in medieval Western European monasteries.



1. 仏教寺院における神道文献の生成 -- 古代から中世にかけての展望 --





これらの神道文献創出の動き(ムーヴメント)は、伊勢神宮の天照大神と同体と観念された東大寺大仏(盧遮那仏)の再建(1185~)をめぐる宗教界の動向と呼応するものであったと考えられる。それは鎌倉時代(13世紀)に一層展開し、いわゆる両部神道として真言密教の事相(修法儀礼実践)と教相(教学テクスト解釈)から成る法流(エコール)の一画に位置付けられ、その神典として、延喜帝(醍醐天皇)に作者を仮託された(つまり公家の官のテクストという位置付けを与えられた)『麗気記(れいきき)』が、神体図像を含む複合宗教テクストとなって成立した。中世には、これらを含む、天台・真言の顕密仏教寺院の宗教テクスト体系が完成したのである。 (阿部『中世日本の宗教テクスト体系研究』名古屋大学出版会、2013)

2. 中世寺院における神道文献伝来の諸相

中世を通じて、宗教テクストの生成と流布の中枢であった中央の大寺院、南都の興福寺と東大寺、天台の延暦寺と園城寺、真言の東寺・仁和寺・醍醐寺など、いずれも現在でも厖大な聖教典籍を伝えているが、実は成立期に遡る中世前期の神道文献(以下、神道書という)は殆ど残されていない。僅かに中世後期(室町時代、15世紀以降)の写本として伝来の末流になる分のみが見出されるに過ぎない。(仁和寺については、名古屋大学比較人文学研究年報別冊『仁和寺資料1 神道灌頂資料』、2001)



3. 真福寺の宗教テクストにおける神道書アーカイヴス


4. 人文学アーカイヴス・宗教テクスト探査のなかの神道文献研究


我々の、この復原的なあらたな悉皆調査の成果の一端は、資料の影印・翻刻・解題という、文献学上の業績として提供されている。 (国文学研究資料館編『真福寺善本叢刊』第1期・第2期、臨川書店、1998―2011)









Archiving religious texts transmitted by Shinpukuji Temple

MIYOSHI Toshinori 三好俊徳, Nanzan University
(lecture at 10:15 in Japanese)

Based on investigations and research carried out in the Ōsu Bunko archive of Shinpukuji temple (Nagoya city) by the Research Center for Cultural Heritage and Texts (CHT) in the Nagoya University Graduate School of Letters, this presentation reports on the archival investigation of temples in Japan and the endeavor to create digital archives. In particular, this presentation will draw on that work to reconsider the significance of the creation and possession of catalogues, which constitute the foundation for archival work. More concretely, the talk surveys the history of Shinpukuji and the development of its library, and situates the catalogues produced or transcribed in each period in order to investigate the roles that catalogues played. Based on this discussion, I will indicate issues in the present state of this research.

Shinpukuji is a seminary (dangisho) of the Shingon school established in the late Kamakura period. Although the temple has long been known for its extensive collection of over 15,000 sacred and classical writings, including the Kojiki (a National Treasure), a comprehensive picture of this collection has been lacking. This changed with the surveys and research led by Abe Yasurō from the 1990’s, which revealed that the core of the collection had been formed over the period of the first three generations of the temple, represented respectively by the monks Nōshin, Shin’yu, and Nin’yu. Most of these documents survive to the present day. The process by which these documents were gathered into collections and then transmitted is perhaps most clearly reflected in catalogues. Ōsu Bunko possesses numerous catalogues, but the content of those works allows us to divide them into two types: 1) catalogues for the purposes of management; 2) catalogues as compilations of knowledge. The library of Shinpukuji developed on the basis of the second type, whereas the first — a list of the documents contained in the second — was used to manage the collection.

These findings establish the fact that catalogues were core documents among those held at the Ōsu Bunko archive. In terms of the CHT project, then, the largest issue we face at present is the lack of a complete catalogue covering every document in the collection. The preparation of such a catalogue is thus our immediate concern. Building from this, we ultimately seek to create a digital archive with digital photographs of all items displayed together with their bibliographic data.









On the Kasuga cult and its archive

CHIKAMOTO Kensuke 近本謙介, Nagoya University
(lecture at 11:30 in Japanese)

When discussing archiving cultural heritage that includes written texts, pictorial art, and textual manuscripts on iconography, ritual, folk material, etc., the focus could be on the contemporary state of archiving practices and address issues pertaining to how the act of archiving should be passed on and utilized. However, the purpose of this presentation is to point to some issues that arise when we think about the concept of archiving with the consideration that the preservation of certain kinds of manuscripts has been conducted as acts of “religious belief” and accumulated within the course of religious and intellectual history.

1. The inheritance of cultural heritage at the Kasuga Shrine

When we think of the Kasuga cult, there is no question that the manuscripts stored at the Kasuga Taisha (Nara Prefecture, Nara City, Kasugano chō), the very center of its tradition, hold great significance. In fact, there is a substantial amount of information that can be gathered from the various records that have been passed down at Kasuga Shrine, beginning with the diaries of the shrine priests (a number of these manuscripts are included in the Shintō Taikei Kasuga 『神道大系 春日』). Not only textual manuscripts, but also material objects from gagaku performance and other various artifacts associated with religious ritual have been stored in the Kasuga Taisha Museum (previously called the Hōmotsuden, or Treasure House) and made available to view in public exhibitions. The fact that these cultural artifacts are extant today and that they have been managed at the very location of Kasuga Shrine makes it an extremely valuable case example for today’s theme of “Archives as Cultural Heritage.”

At Kasuga Shrine, a festival initially founded in the 12th century, the “Kasuga wakamiya on-matsuri” (春日若宮おん祭り), continues to be performed today. When we think about archiving, it is important that we also consider how a religious ritual performance such as this has been transmitted as cultural heritage. Illustrated festival records of the Kasuga wakamiya on-matsuri dating from pre-modern times are available for us to view today, and these are extremely valuable as archives of a religious festival, as they allow us to observe how the festival changed through history.

There are also a quite a few texts preserved to this day that provide information regarding religious rituals performed in front of the deities enshrined at Kasuga Shrine and Kasuga Wakamiya Shrine, but the “Daihannyakyō (Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra) and Cabinet Dedicated to Wakamiya of Kasuga Shrine” held at Nezu Museum is one example of a religious heritage that provides insight as to how a religious ritual came to be performed and how it functioned (see Setsuwa bungaku kenkyū vol. 51, 2016). In other words, by looking at the Daihannyakyō (Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra) and Sutra Cabinet as material artifacts and deciphering these along with the colophon of the sutra and the inscriptions on the box and doors of the Sutra Cabinet, one is able to obtain a more comprehensive picture of this religious heritage.

At the same time, the cultural heritage associated with the Kasuga cult is not necessarily preserved only at Kasuga Shrine. When we consider the issues of archiving the Kasuga cult, it should also prompt us to think about sharing information and engaging in collaborative efforts with other locations that also preserve the heritage of its religious practices.

2. The preservation of cultural heritage associated with the Kasuga cult

The cultural heritage of the Kasuga Cult is accompanied by practices of the jingi cult (神祇信仰) that include the transfer (遷座) and coming (影向) of a kami, and one must also include within its scope the connections it has with the original locations of the Four Kami of Kasuga (春日四所明神) before they were transferred to the grounds of Kasuga (Kashima, Katori, and Hiraoka), not to mention the vast network all across Japan where the kami of Kasuga have been enshrined. All of these external locations also become potential considerations for archiving a complete picture of the Kasuga cult.

As the kami of Kasuga were also the tutelary deities of the Fujiwara family, it is also important to consider manuscripts related to the Kasuga cult that have been preserved at Kōfukuji Temple, which is known the tutelary temple of the Fujiwara family that had enormous influence on the Kasuga Shrine throughout the medieval period. If we also consider the dissemination and spread of the jingi cult in the Nara (Nanto) region, we must also acknowledge that there are various manuscripts that should be archived as the cultural heritage of the Kasuga cult that are preserved at various Nara temples, including Tōdaiji, Saidaiji, Tōshōdaiji, and Yakushiji.

Steps have also been taken to establish projects that collaborate with local universities and research institutions for the archiving and public display of manuscripts. Examples of projects that include Kasuga cult-related manuscripts are databases made open to the public, such as the “Database of Manuscripts and Images from the Nara Region” (奈良地域関連資料画像データベース) managed by Nara Women’s University Academic Information Center and the Ōmiyake Monjo Database (大宮家文書データベース) made available through the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (奈良文化財研究所). These are valuable resources to obtain information regarding the Kasuga cult.

As for texts that point to the relationship between ritual and the Kasuga cult, there are texts such as the “Kasuga Gongen kōshiki” (春日権現講式). For information on kōshiki texts, one can access the online “Kōshiki Database” managed by Niels Guelberg.

One of the remaining tasks is to consider how we can effectively link together and synthesize these various forms of archives regarding the Kasuga cult.

3. Kanazawa Bunko as a center of Kasuga Cult Archives

Kanazawa Bunko was initially a private library within the residence quarters of regent Hōjō Sanetoki 北条実時 (1224–1276) in Mutsuurashō Kanazawa that preserved the shōgyō 聖教 texts of Shōmyōji Temple, which was the family temple for the Hōjō family following the collapse of the Kamakura Bakufu. Due to the ardent work of Kenna 釼阿 (1261-1338) and Tanei 湛睿 (1271-1347) in copying and compiling religious texts, a vast collection is preserved there to this day. The Shōmyōji Temple shōgyō prides itself as one of the few collections in the country that includes Shinto related manuscripts. Its vast collection can be known through the Kanazawa Bunko edited Medieval Shinto Manuscripts of Kanazawa Bunko (『金沢文庫の中世神道資料』, 1996) and there has been a continuous flow of research done on individual manuscripts in the collection.

Within this collection of Shinto related manuscripts, one can find a significant collection of manuscripts regarding the Kasuga cult. There are manuscripts ranging from various genres including textual exegesis (釈), votive texts (発願文), kōshiki (講式), and records of miracles (霊験記), and not only is this collection valuable in providing us with an overall picture of the Kasuga cult for our study of the medieval period, but the collection itself can also be seen as functioning in its own right as a textual archive of the Kasuga cult in the medieval period.

In fact, it was through an analysis of the Kanazawa Bunko Shōmyōji shōgyō that the Kōfukuji monk Jōkei’s deep involvement with the production of Kasuga gongen genki-e (春日権現験記絵), the picture scroll that was produced through the cooperation between Kasuga Shrine and Kōfukuji Temple and known as the great culmination of the Kasuga cult in the Kamakura period, was made clear. There is no doubt that archiving shōgyō texts preserved at temples and making them publicly available will have great benefit for the advancement of academic studies.

4. Conclusions: what we can learn from the incipient stages of archiving

In the Kasuga gongen genki-e, there are many records of miraculous events associated with the deities of Kasuga. These revelations from the kami of Kasuga come in various forms, as oracles, dreams, etc., and in many cases involve a form of performance art.

In vol. 13, part 6 of the Kasuga gongen genki-e, there is a story of a Buddhist monk who tried to immediately write down an oracle given by the kami of Kasuga. As an account in which an oracle given by a kami was documented at the scene of its revelation, it is a story that provides us with a picture of the initial acts of archiving.

Included within the Kyōkunshō (『教訓抄』), a text that includes information amassed at the Nara training place for gagaku performance (南都楽所), is a record that indicates Jokei’s use of the “miraculous records of the shrine” (御社験記) in his sermons and preaching. This record in the Kyōkunshō demonstrates that the Kasuga gongen genki-e was seen as an archive of the oracles and miraculous records that functioned as the backbone of the Kasuga cult in its initial stages, and provides us with insight as to how it was later received and utilized.

This phenomenon regarding the initial circumstances surrounding the act of archiving mentioned here was not something that happened only within the confines of the Kasuga cult, but is applicable to overall developments within the jingi cult. Perhaps what we see materialized within the Kanazawa Bunko shōgyō is one way in which this vast network of information came to be compiled and integrated together.

I believe that thinking about the circumstances that surrounded the incipient stages of archiving can provide us with important insights that will help us advance the methods of integration and cooperation in contemporary archiving practices.




春日信仰を考える際に、その中心である春日大社(奈良県奈良市春日野町)に所蔵される諸資料が有意義であることは論を俟たない。事実、春日社に伝わる社家日記をはじめとする記録類から得られる情報は大きい(いくつかの資料は『神道大系 春日』所収)。文字テクストのみならず、雅楽や宗教儀礼資料等が春日大社国宝殿(旧称:宝物殿)に保管され、展示にも供されているように、現在にまで春日社が伝わり、そこで管理が継承されることは、「文化遺産としてのアーカイヴス」にとって、極めて幸運な事例と言えるであろう。






春日神が藤原氏の氏神である点からは、中世において春日社に多大な影響を与えた興福寺(藤原氏氏寺)に伝わる春日信仰関係資料とのかかわりも重要になり、南都における神祇信仰の広がりと広まりの観点からは、東大寺・西大寺・唐招提寺・薬師寺をはじめとする南都諸寺院にも、春日信仰の文化遺産としてアーカイヴ化すべき諸資料が伝存している。 地域における大学や研究所との連携による、資料のアーカイヴ化および公開もいくつかの事業が進んでいる。たとえば、春日信仰関係を含む事業として、奈良女子大学学術情報センターによる「奈良地域関連資料画像データベース」が公開されており、奈良文化財研究所「大宮家文書データベース」等も、春日信仰の情報を得る上で有益である。 春日信仰と儀礼とのかかわりをかたる文字テクストとして、「春日権現講式」等があるが、講式については、ニールス・グュルベルク(Niels GUELBERG)の運営する「講式データベース」も公開されている。






4.まとめ ― 初期的アーカイヴのありかたとのかかわりから ―







Archiving the Collection of Festival Illustrations

at Kokugakuin University
DAITŌ Takaaki 大東敬明 Kokugakuin University, Tokyo
(lecture at 12:15 in Japanese)

Among the documents concerning Shinto matsuri (rites/festivals) held by Kokugakuin University (Shibuya, Tokyo), this presentation will consider research and archival work on illustrated documents of festivals, focusing in particular on the activities of the Academic Resource Center (the Shinto Museum division) within the Organization for the Advancement of Research and Development at Kokugakuin University. The talk highlights what I will refer to as “curation,” that is, the linking and sharing archives/databases and sources, as a necessary component in the process of transmitting cultural heritage and uncovering the value of sources themselves.

Kokugakuin University is one of the very few universities in the world with a department dedicated to the study of Shinto (the Faculty of Shinto Studies). The Kokugakuin University Museum therefore contains an exhibit room devoted to Shinto, where sources related to Shinto, including its festivals, are displayed. The work of collecting and surveying these Shinto-related sources is the work of the Shinto Museum.

The Shinto Museum has intermittently carried out research on illustrated scrolls (emaki) depicting festivals. Most recently, the museum digitized eleven illustrated scrolls and folding screens (byōbu), including the Illustrated Scroll of the Gion Festival (Gion sairei emaki) and the Illustrated Scroll of Annual Observances (Nenjū gyōji emaki) (editions formerly possessed by Okada Shōji), releasing a selection of them to the public through the Kokugakuin University Library’s digital library(

The Illustrated Scroll of Annual Observances is understood to have been created as a project of Retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa (1127–1192), who sought to depict the ceremonial affairs conducted throughout the year, and was kept in the storehouse of Rengeō’in. The scroll held by Kokugakuin University is one of various editions of the ninth fascicle, depicting the Gion Goryō-e festival (the original was lost by fire in 1661), and is distinctive because it contains color. An analysis of this work reveals connections with modern-day festivals and to the databases and documents of other institutions.

Another document held by the Shinto Museum is Ichieisai Yoshitsuya’s ukiyo-e painting known as Festivals of the Town of Shinzaimoku (Shinzaimoku-chō tsuke matsuri ), which depicts a Sannō festival at Edo held in 1862 (Bunkyū 2). This work also indicates points of connection with the databases and documents held by other institutions.

In this way, documents, archives, and databases are linked together by the hands of people. Through this work, the sharing of contextual and related information about both tangible and intangible cultural heritage (or “curation”) becomes a key task along with the construction of archives. This talk suggests that what we must do in going forward with this work is to clarify what kinds of documents and archives held by other institutions relate to the archives and databases that we ourselves have constructed, and to consider the significance of those connections.


本発表では、國學院大學(東京、渋谷)が所蔵する神道の「祭り」に関する資料のうち、祭礼図の研究とアーカイヴについて、國學院大學 研究開発推進機構 学術資料センター(神道資料館部門)(通称、神道資料館)の活動に焦点を絞りながら述べる。そして、文化遺産を継承し、資料そのものの価値を見出してゆくためにはアーカイヴと同時に、アーカイヴ/データベースや資料をつなげ、共有すること(本発表では「キュレーション」※と呼んでおく)にも目を向ける必要があることを指摘する。すなわち、アーカイヴ/データベースを構築するだけの時代は終り、近い将来、アーカイヴ/データベースは、それらや資料間のつながりも含めて示し、共有する時代に移ると考える。

1.國學院大學 研究開発推進機構 学術資料センター(神道資料館部門)の活動

國學院大學は、「神道」を学ぶ学部(神道文化学部)を持つ、世界でも数少ない大学の一つである。このため、同大学に付属する國學院大學博物館には、神道の展示室があり、祭りを含めた神道に関わる資料を展示している。この神道に関わる資料の収集・調査を行っているのが「神道資料館」である。また、同大学附属の研究機関であり、神道資料館も所属している研究開発推進機構では、神道に関する情報を含むデータベース群(デジタルミュージアム: )を公開している。


神道を考える際に重要であるのは、祭りである。このため、神道資料館では、それに関する資料を収集している。特に2016年には日本の「山・鉾・屋台行事」がユネスコ無形文化遺産に登録された。これに関連して、日本では各地で祭礼が注目され、研究も進展している。 柳田國男は『日本の祭』(1942年、弘文堂書房、東京)において、祭りを、①限られた人々のみで行う「祭」(祭祀)、②多くの見物人が訪れる華やかな「祭礼」に分類した。「祭礼」は、見物人に観られることを前提としているため、華やかに彩られる。また、新しい要素を取り込み、新たな伝統を生み出す性格もある。この様子は絵巻物や屏風に描かれた。特に絵巻物は時間と空間の移り変わりを示すのに適していることから、数多くの祭礼絵巻が作られた。これらの中には、かつての祭礼の様子を示してくれるものも多く含まれているが、祭礼研究においては、この他、文字資料(文書、民俗誌…)や写真、音楽、現在の祭礼の様子、映像など、多くの情報を総合したり、つなぎ合わせたりして考えることも重要である。


神道資料館では、祭礼絵巻の研究を断続的に行っており、最近では、2014年〜2017年にかけて行った研究事業「祭祀・祭礼の変遷に関する研究と関連資料の整理分析」において、『祇園祭礼絵巻』『年中行事絵巻』(旧岡田本)をはじめとする、11点の絵巻・屏風をデジタル化し、一部は國學院大學図書館デジタルライブラリーにて公開している( 、日本語のみ)。









Archiving Viennese resources on the history of Ethiopian peoples

Ethnographical Collections of F. J. Bieber
YOSHIDA Sayuri 吉田早悠里, Nanzan University
(lecture at 14:30 in English)

This presentation introduces the collections of the Austrian Africanist Friedrich Julius Bieber. His collections contain ethnographic artefacts from Ethiopia at the beginning of the 20th century, and I will examine the meaning and the subject of archive construction on the basis of these collections.

In recent years, ethnographical collections which the anthropologist and ethnologist collected in the field, such as ethnological objects, photographs took in the field, and their field notes, are digitized as archives, and utilized for research. For example, the National Museum of Ethnology in Japan collects such collection of Japanese ethnologists and anthropologists and release the information about the collections for public by making “ethnology research archives.” The Frobenius Institute conducts construction of the collections of ethnologists or anthropologists which the institute has, and releases digital data on Web.

Within this context, the collections which were formerly known by or opened for only some limited people, are made public and utilizable for research. Such collections contribute to clarify the situation of the field of those days which the anthropologist and ethnologist researched. Moreover, though such collections it becomes possible to understand their concrete research methods and contents, as well as their way of thinking.

Since 2014, I have been doing archive research into the collections of Friedrich Julius Bieber in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of my research is to establish a firm foundation for the inheritance and utilization of the collection of Bieber. He is recognized as the first person who conducted ethnological work in Kafa. Bieber was born in Austria in 1873 and visited Ethiopia from 1904 to 1909, when the Kafa Kingdom was conquered by the Ethiopian Empire of the Amhara. Bieber wrote many articles and books about the inhabitants, culture, customs, religion, and history of Kafa. Today, his work represents one of the most important sources about Kafa and provides a foundation for Kafa studies (e.g. Bieber 1920-1923).

Upon his death, Bieber left a great deal of property and written materials concerning both Ethiopia and his daily life. This collection includes ethnological materials from Kafa, instruments used in his journeys to Ethiopia, photographs, unpublished manuscripts, memoranda, etc. The collections will help our understanding of Kafa, both historically and currently, and of Ethiopia as a whole, providing insights that would be impossible to know by present-day field work. Moreover, the collection includes unique records describing the formation of the early modern Ethiopian state and the relationship between Ethiopia and the Austro-Hungarian monarchy at that time.

Today, the collections are held by the World Museum, the District Museum of Hietzing, and the Austrian National Library in Vienna. About the Bieber collection, the World Museum has registers total 257 objects in the inventory. Most of his collections is from Ethiopia, such as clothes, ornaments, tableware, bedding, musical instruments, weapons, and so on. The Austrian National Library has 35 kinds of documents of Friedrich Julius Bieber. The collection is titled “Estate of Friedrich Julius Bieber (Nachlaß Friedrich Julius Bieber).” The District Museum of Hietzing has 272 ethnological objects from Ethiopia, as well as personal belongings, photographs, pictures and so on.

The special feature of the collections of Bieber is containing various collections, such as ethnological objects, documents, photographs. However, these collections are kept at three places. Moreover, everywhere, although these museum and library are performing collection arrangement and database creation uniquely, the possession situation of the collections is not shared mutually. In addition, anthropologists or historians do not necessarilly conduct archive research, and in many cases may not have the special technique or knowledge how to deal with collections, arrangements, digitization, and database creation. I would like to argue for an interdisciplinary approach towards archives construction in this workshop.


本発表は、オーストリアに所在するフリードリッヒ・ユリウス・ビーバー(Friedrich Julius Bieber、以下F.J.ビーバー)の資料群を取り上げ、20世紀初頭エチオピアに関する民族誌的資料を紹介するとともに、こうした資料群のアーカイヴス構築に関する意義と課題について検討するものである。


こうした資料群のアーカイヴス構築、デジタル化とデジタルデータのWeb上での一般公開により、従来は一部の人々のみがその存在を知る資料や、公開が制限されて一部の人々のみに利用が限定されていた資料も、研究に活用可能な状況が整備されるようになってきた。こうした資料群は、人類学者や民族学者が調査した当時のフィールドの様子のみならず、彼らの具体的な調査方法や内容、思考過程を理解、解明することをも可能にするものであり、そのアーカイヴス構築の意義は大きい。 こうしたなかで、発表者はエチオピア南西部カファ地方に関する民族学的研究の第一人者F.J.ビーバーが遺した資料群を研究資料として活用可能な状態に整えると同時に、次世代へ継承することを目的としたアーカイヴスの構築に2014年から取り組んできた。F.J.ビーバーは、1873年にオーストリアのウィーンで生まれ、20世紀初頭に3度にわたってエチオピアを訪れた。なかでも1905年6月から7月には、エチオピア帝国に征服されて間もないカファ地方を訪問し、約1ヶ月間滞在している。そして、カファ地方に暮らす人々の生活や文化、歴史に関する多くの記述を遺し、カファ研究の基本的枠組みの形成に大きな貢献を果たした(e.g. Bieber 1920-23)。

F.J.ビーバーの資料群は、F.J.ビーバーがエチオピアを訪問した際に現地で収集した民族学的資料、旅行時に使用した機器、同地で撮影した写真、未公刊の日記、草稿、書簡などから構成される。これらの資料群は、今日の現地調査では実証困難な、カファ地方の歴史および20世紀初頭のカファ地方に暮らす人々の暮らしぶりを解明する資料として極めて貴重なものである。また、日記からは、F.J.ビーバーの研究関心の変遷や進展を読み取ることも可能である。 F.J.ビーバーの資料群は、ウィーンに位置する世界博物館、オーストリア国立図書館、ヒーツィンク区博物館に分散して所蔵されている。世界博物館は、エチオピアに関する民族学的資料257点を所蔵している 。国立図書館はF.J.ビーバーのエチオピア訪問時の日記のほか、カファ語とドイツ語で書かれたカファの歴史や民俗、宗教等に関する草稿など35点を所蔵している。また、ヒーツィンク区博物館は、200点以上のエチオピアの民族学的資料や、F.J.ビーバーのプライベートに関する資料を所蔵している。そのほか、個人蔵となっている資料群には、F.J.ビーバーが家族に宛てた300点を超える絵葉書や、エチオピアで撮影した写真資料がある。

F.J.ビーバーの資料群の特色は、民族学的資料をはじめとした物質資料や、文書資料、写真や図像資料など、多様な資料を含んでいる点である。しかし、これらの資料群は複数の場所に分散している。また、各所蔵機関は、資料整理やデータベース化を独自に行っているが、資料群の所蔵状況は相互に共有されていない。そのため、こうした資料群のアーカイヴス構築、活用、運用について、さまざまな課題がある。 また、文化人類学者や歴史学者は、必ずしもアーカイヴ研究を専門としておらず、資料の取り扱い方法や整理、デジタル化、データベース作成に関する専門的な技術や知識を有していない場合も多い。本ワークショップでは、アーカイヴス構築に向けた学際的な議論の場として、これらについても議論したい。



Open to Surprises

On Research for the “Shintō-uke Project” at the Ikeda Family Archive of Okayama University
Stefan KÖCK, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for the Cultural and Intellectual History of Asia – IKGA
(lecture at 15:15 in English)

Historical documents and other archivalia are indispensable materials for the work of the historian, who has to turn to Japanese archives when doing research on Japanese history. Despite recent trends of digitization, the majority of the materials of Japanese archives are still not accessible on the internet. Scholars therefore still need to visit the respective archives in search for sources in order to work with the originals.

This talk will focus on the Ikeda Family Archive housed by the University of Okayama. It consists of the complete archive of the Ikeda family that ruled the area of Bizen/Okayama from 1632 until 1871 and is a major archive of its kind in Japan. The phenomenon of shintō-uke, religious control via Shintō shrines, occurred in this area in the second half of the 17th century, which makes the Ikeda Archive and its documents a most important source for the present project.

Starting with general remarks on archives in Japan, the talk will introduce the Ikeda Family Archive and give a report on the actual state of the reseach. Difficulties encountered in the process will also be pointed out. Since research quite often does not develop as expected, as scholar one has to stay open to surprises.

Archives in Austria and Beauty

Certificate of marriage, Bari, 1028
Martin ROLAND, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Medieval Research – IMAFO
(lecture at 16:30 in English)

In my presentation, I will introduce a couple of locations where the “cultural heritage” of Austria is stored. I will concentrate on “classical archives,” that is collections of written documents on governmental activities preserved in order to guarantee legal security and continuity.

Among these, there are central national archives as well as regional and small, local archives in rural boroughs. This enormous span from large to small can be found also among ecclesiastical archives, and among holdings of manors, companies, or single persons.

In addition to my focus on medieval material (6th to 15th c.), I will limit my presentation to illuminated sources, which comprise less than one per mill of the available archived objects. The fact that documents were supplied with illustrations does not alter their legal status. Yet, their artistic values contain a certain well-intended subtext that can be grasped immediately even by an audience separated by space and time such as ours.

Finally, I will discuss the archives in Latsch, Southern Tyrol, as an example of the riches contained in small local collections.

Digital archives’ mindset and competence

Ethos, pathos, and logos for better strategies
Go SUGIMOTO, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austrian Center for Digital Humanities – ACDH
(lecture at 17:15 in English)

This presentation will discuss the mindset and literacy which are vital and/or useful when working with digital archives in the domain of cultural heritage. Due to the wide acceptance of digital technology, the importance of digital archives has increasingly been recognised even in the field of historical research such as the study of medieval manuscripts and language analysis with modern audio recordings. However, it is still not clear for many humanities researchers how to implement the best practice for various reasons: 1) the pace of technological change is extremely fast, 2) digital archives projects require high level of specialised knowledge and expertise, 3) knowledge transfer and training possibilities are limited. The presenter will address this technical gap, provide options to minimise the risks of digital mismanagement, and improve competence in digital archives. At the end of the workshop, the attendees will hopefully gain a better understanding of digital archives, learn new mindsets, and critically think about their strategies on their own. The lecture will introduce some key topics, including data and standards, web technologies, relevant projects, services and infrastructures, and digital archives in a bigger picture (Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities).

Öster­reichi­sche Aka­demie der Wissen­schaften
Institut für Kultur- und Geistes­geschichte Asiens
Meine Werkzeuge